Aasim Padela

Padela

Aasim Padela

Expert

Areas of Expertise: Community-based Health Research, Cultural Competency, Islamic law and bioethics, Health services research

Disclaimer: the work linked below reflects the view of the author and does not necessarily reflect the view of ISPU.

Dr. Aasim Padela is the Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine, Associate Professor of Medicine in the Section of Emergency Medicine, and a faculty member at the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics at the University of Chicago.

Dr. Padela holds an MD from Weill Cornell Medical College, completed residency in emergency medicine at the University of Rochester, and received an MS in Healthcare Research from the University of Michigan. His Islamic studies expertise comes via a BS in Classical Arabic from the University of Rochester, seminary studies during his formative years, and continued tutorials with Islamic authorities.

Dr. Padela is a clinician-researcher and bioethicist whose scholarship lies at the intersection of community health and religion. He utilizes diverse methodologies from health services research, religious studies, and comparative ethics to examine the encounter of Islam with contemporary biomedicine through the lives of Muslim patients and clinicians, and in the scholarly writings of Islamic authorities. Through systematic research and strategic interventions, he seeks (1) to improve American Muslim health outcomes and healthcare experiences, and (2) to construct a multidisciplinary field of Islamic bioethics.

As a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar from 2008-2011 he developed a community-based research methodology to study and intervene upon American Muslim health disparities. In 2010, as a Visiting Fellow at the Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies he studied Islamic moral and theological frameworks, and from 2013 to 2015 as a Templeton Foundation Scholar he led a national survey of Muslim physicians’ bioethical attitudes and professional experiences. His current areas of research in cancer screening, end-of-life care, neuroscience and theology are funded by the Templeton Foundation and the American Cancer Society.

Education

M.S. Healthcare Research, University of Michigan; MD Weill Cornell Medical College; BS Biomedical Engineering University of Rochester; BA Classical Arabic & Literature, University of Rochester

Areas of Expertise

  1. Community-based Health Research
  2. Cultural Competency
  3. Islamic law and bioethics
  4. Health services research

Publications

Padela, AI. 2013. Islamic Verdicts in Health Policy Discourse: Porcine-based Vaccines as a Case Study. Zygon. 48:655-670.

Padela, AI. Adam, H., Ahmad, M., Hosseinain, Z., Curlin F. Religious Identity and Workplace Discrimination: A National Survey of American Muslim Physicians. AJOB Empirical Bioethics. Epub 2015

Killawi, A, Heisler, M., Hamid, H., and Padela, AI.2015. Using Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) for Health Research in American Muslim Mosque Communities. Progress in Community Health Partnerships. 9:65-74

Padela, AI. and Curlin, F. 2013. Religion and Disparities: Considering the influences of Islam on the health of American Muslims. Journal of Religion and Health 52:1333-1345

Padela, AI. and Heisler, M. 2010. The Association of Perceived Abuse and Discrimination After September 11, 2001, With Psychological Distress, Level of Happiness, and Health Status Among Arab Americans. American Journal of Public Health 100:284-91. Epub 2009.

Padela, AI., Gunter, K.Killawi, A., and Heisler, M. 2012. Religious Values & Healthcare Accommodations: Voices from the American Muslim Community. Journal of General Internal Medicine 27:708-715.

Padela, AI. and Raza, A. 2015. American Muslim Health Disparities: The State of the Medline Literature. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice. 8:1-9.

Ezenkwele, U., Roodsari GS., and Padela, AI. 2016 Religio-cultural Considerations When Providing Health Care to American Muslims: In Diversity and Inclusion in Quality Patient Care eds. M.L. Martin, S.L Heron, L. Moreno-Walton, and A. W. Jones. Springer International.

Other Works

In the past few weeks, media circles in Cairo have been buzzing with talk of a new grassroots campaign designed to end President Mohamed Morsi’s term in office.
Learning lessons is always hard - especially when you're in a higher position of power than everyone else. Paradoxically, its usually those in power that are in need of learning from the lessons of the past, more than anyone else - because if they repeat those mistakes, it creates far more impact than if anyone…
Dr. H.A. Hellyer recently caught up with Dr. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu in Cairo to discuss Egypt and religion.
One wonders, as a curfew falls over Egypt, and emergency law returns: What is the future of Egypt’s revolutionary process, and its transition to a more pluralistic, stable and progressive place?
All NGOs in Egypt, and any abroad that want to act in Egypt, are going to be very nervous about doing any work in the country due to the recent verdict in the NGO trial.
This is what happened at the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) office in the Cairo suburb of Maadi on the night of December 6. I was there.
There is a different Egypt for everyone
Was the brutal south London killing of a British soldier actually an act of terrorism?
The majority of the population is solidly behind the military-backed interim government, and against the pro-Morsi camp, in spite of the incredible and obscene use of excessive force by the government's security forces to break up pro-Morsi protests.
A decade after 9/11 it is time to evaluate the repercussions not only in the United States but also the ramifications within Europe.
ISPU Fellow H.A. Hellyer discusses Hezbollah's evolution before and during the Syrian revolution.
The breaking of the cycle of mutual distrust and common hate is difficult to achieve – but if Egypt has a chance to progress and make good on the promise of the January 25th revolution, that cycle must be broken.
Tommy Robinson, the leader of the English Defence League (EDL) announced his departure from the group, with a weaker extreme right welcomed by those hoping for deeper, wider community cohesion in the UK.
Last time I was in Washington D.C., a government official put it to me bluntly, if somewhat tongue-in-cheek: "Couldn't you get the Egyptian protestors to change the day they protest the most? With the time difference and everything, Fridays are awfully inconvenient for us in D.C. -- it really cuts into our weekend." In the…
The Muslim Brotherhood (MB), until after the Egyptian revolution began in 2011, was a civil society movement. Then, the leadership had a choice: transform the movement into a political party - or not. The consequences of that decision have repercussions for the MB’s future - but also on wider Egyptian political life, and Muslim communities…
Will the military be an aid to the fulfillment of revolutionary demands, and the production of a pluralistic, genuine democracy? Time will tell.
It is difficult to know who actually “represents” the Muslim British community, considering the vast diversity and absence of a church-like structure that would deliver a “representative” of Muslims to wider society.
The choices that three major forces in Egypt now have: the Muslim Brotherhood, the state, and then those who are not particularly pleased about either of them.
It’s a very confusing time. This country has endured so much hardship over the past week—many naturally want it to end, and return to a modicum of normalcy and security, as well as personal well-being. And when Mubarak said he was not running again, many decided that the time to protest had ended, and that…
No one knows for certain what will come next, but everyone knows that there is one man who can change everything right now. And unfortunately, everyone is pretty certain that he won’t, and Egypt will pay the price.
Thanks to the Egyptian authorities, the revolution that is unfolding on Egypt's streets will not air live on most of its TVs, Twitter feeds or Facebook pages. But that doesn't mean revolution isn't happening. It is, and I'm living it.   On January 28, the police were ordered off the streets around the country. The…
Thanks to the Egyptian authorities, the revolution that is unfolding on Egypt's streets will not air live on most of its TVs, Twitter feeds or Facebook pages. But that doesn't mean revolution isn't happening. It is, and I'm living it.   On January 28, the police were ordered off the streets around the country. The…
The temptation across much of government and in most public discourse was to conflate all types of political activity within the Muslim community as inevitably violent.
Since the partial suspension of American aid to Egypt in early October, there have been suspicions that the American-Egyptian relationship has been in jeopardy.
For the past three years, the Egyptian political elite, across the board, has wholly failed to inspire Egyptian citizens. A constitution borne out of this process will not be able to bear testimony to the sacrifices of the Egyptian people in the past three years – all of their sacrifices from across the political arena.…
Today and tomorrow, Egyptians will go to the polls to vote on an amended constitution. The reality of what they are voting on is quite different from the constitution – and the repercussions of the vote will define Egypt for the coming phase. Indeed, the repercussions may outlast the constitution itself.
The reality of Egypt’s situation is clear: one can choose to fall into the binary trap, where you are either “with us” or “with them” – or one can see Egypt for what it is.
The June 30 protests did not have to lead to a military ouster of Mohammad Mursi – it could have just as easily led to a number of different outcomes.
Security reform is one demand of the January 25th revolution that is non-negotiable if the country is to progress. Egypt will continue in this cycle of violence for some time to come, unless real leadership is shown, and hard choices are made.
Many Egyptians are going to the polls this week to vote in a referendum on an amended constitution.
Political leadership has failed the revolution of the 25th of January – but standing one’s ground has never been more important in this country’s revolution.
Egypt’s next steps will be the most difficult – to keep order and ensure real democracy returns, and to prevent a backlash either by or against the Muslim Brotherhood.
Those who supported the revolution and continue to agitate for progressive change in Egypt have always been in the minority.
There are many criticisms that can, and ought to, be made vis-à-vis the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. However, they ought never to be used to provide excuses for abuses perpetrated by society at large, or by the state in carrying out its duties to protect every Egyptian – pro-Mursi or otherwise.
Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Sisi's call for Friday protests may be a maneuver to show the world how little support the Muslim Brotherhood has overall in Egypt.
We were all waiting for, frankly, a huge confrontation. It never happened. The pro-Mubarak demonstrators showed up, caused a bit of a ruckus, and then dispersed—and a fair bit away from Liberation (Tahrir) Square.   The atmosphere in the Square was electric. People were singing the national anthem of Egypt, and people watching were posting…
It's quite fascinating to see the role of religion and religious figures over the past week in Egypt. Certainly, the state in Egypt has mentioned the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan al-Muslimeen) many times over the years, voicing the fear that in the event that the ruling National Democratic Party fell, Egypt would turn into an Arab…
Egyptians are skeptical about the completion of their revolution but they refuse to be crushed
He was the driver of one of many cars we stopped that night coming into our neighborhood. Foolishly, I did not take his national identification card and his car registration -- I just asked him to open the trunk of his car. He opened it with pleasure, and was about to drive off, when Muhammad,…
Now that Egyptians have voted on the new constitution, the country has passed the first signpost on the post-Morsi road-map. As Egypt’s political quagmire continues, the question becomes at what point will the political zero-sum game end and Egyptians begin to face their real problems?
It was a YouTube movie trailer that no one knew about. That is, until radical Salafis decided to draw everyone's attention to it.
When it comes to the role of the Brotherhood in the Jan. 25 uprising, three interesting narratives are increasingly becoming popular. They each destroy not only the spirit of the Jan. 25 uprising, but also try to dismantle its memory.
Yes, much of what is happening on the streets of Turkey looks similar to the Egyptian uprising. But they're different in many ways.
Yes, much of what is happening on the streets of Turkey looks similar to the Egyptian uprising. But they're different in many ways.
The state of Egypt's governance in the last three months since Morsi's removal, while still in flux and transition, is hard to describe as another phase toward full-fledged democracy.
The question now is not if the Palestinian-Israeli conflict will change after the Arab uprisings began; the question is how it will.
When September 11 happened, no one doubted that the world had changed. The greatest fear was that the anger of the American people would be directed at innocent Muslims who had nothing to do with the attack.   Almost a decade later, the evidence is overwhelming. Muslim Americans increasingly feel like a suspect community. That…
More than a decade after September 11, 2001 and we are only now really beginning to comprehend the health fallout from the terrorist attacks. The effects suffered by first-responders and those who lived in downtown New York City have become increasingly clear, and have rightly been the subject of much attention. Indeed, only yesterday it…
“Mr. Frattini (the Italian Foreign Minister) said he was concerned about a rise in “Islamic radicalism” and “the rise of an Islamic emirate” in eastern Libya.” -The New York Times “This is the al Qaeda that the whole world is fighting”.-Muammar Gaddafi, referring to the uprising against his regime. In much of the press at…
“Mr. Frattini (the Italian Foreign Minister) said he was concerned about a rise in “Islamic radicalism” and “the rise of an Islamic emirate” in eastern Libya.” -The New York Times “This is the al Qaeda that the whole world is fighting”.-Muammar Gaddafi, referring to the uprising against his regime. In much of the press at…
Egypt’s transitional process, that so far has stymied its revolution, rather than enabling it, has been nothing but tragic.
Breaking down the data from a recent "TahrirTrends" survey sheds light on Egypt's public discourse and popular disappointment with Morsi and FJP governance.
This uprising had a destination – but certainly not the same soul that existed during the January 25th uprising.
Former Egyptian president Mohammed Morsi was removed from office more than a month ago - and the immediate fallout from that day has ceased to level itself out.
As the Park51 community center and mosque project near Ground Zero is painted as an issue of the rights and future of the American Muslim community, Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf has been challenged to demonstrate that he is a moderate voice for Islam. By portraying the mosque issue as one of American Muslim rights the…
  On New Year’s Eve this year, I was in Cairo. I heard about the bombing of the church in Alexandria, and I saw the outrage that took place on the streets of Cairo – and the solidarity it resulted in, with Muslim men and women standing guard outside of churches on Coptic Christmas (January…
  On New Year’s Eve this year, I was in Cairo. I heard about the bombing of the church in Alexandria, and I saw the outrage that took place on the streets of Cairo – and the solidarity it resulted in, with Muslim men and women standing guard outside of churches on Coptic Christmas (January…
That sense of historical memory and concern overwhelms any impulse to build consensus — regrettably, at a time when Egypt’s transition needs it more than ever.
Egypt’s media is the lesser without the Egypt Independent.
A swarthy, dark-haired gentleman has always inspired mystery in the western psyche, but it’s no longer a curious mystery – it’s a suspicion. Even Arab customs officials can be curious about how someone who could pass so easily for an Arab national (and thus subject to military service) is actually not. But American customs officials…
“Its politics, stupid.” But in the New Egypt, we dared to hope for more. The latest Doha Debates took place in Cairo, where guests debated the pros and cons of delaying elections in support of democracy. The discussion was lively, and I don’t wish to spoil people’s viewing of it on BBC world later this…
There will continue to be debate in some Egyptian quarters as to whether or not those who stood trial in the recent NGOS case in Egypt actually broke the law.
When those in Egypt talk about democracy, whether those who demand “legitimacy” for Morsi’s presidency, or those who insist there is a 30 June “revolution”, they ought to be reminded: without respect for the other, there is no revolution. There is only revulsion. The alternative, of course, which seems to be what a lot of…
In the last couple of days, Egypt has seen the birth of a new kind of regime. With President Mohammed Mursi’s latest decree, there is a new constitutional reality, and near-absolute powers have just been placed at the disposal of the Egyptian president.
The Islamic values and cultural practices of American Muslims can play a role in community health disparities by influencing health behaviors and healthcare-seeking patterns and presenting challenges within the healthcare system. To date, scant empirical research has been conducted in collaboration with this community in order to better understand their beliefs and perceived challenges. This…
By alienating so many Egyptians, the Muslim Brotherhood has made the continuation of a Morsi presidency more difficult.
In Turkey, as in Egypt, genuine grievances can be exploited and magnified by forces seeking to bring down the government by any means necessary.
The Muslim Brotherhood can't escape blame for its ousting from power and Egypt's subsequent polarisation. If the international community can do anything, it is to persuade all political actors to refrain from violence and respect civil rights.
If Morsi would do one act worthy of a president, it must be to give that statement – a statement to call his followers back, and to offer to the Egyptian public a way forward that does not lead to more violence.
Mursi’s presidency is officially over – but many of the problems that led to his departure are still there, and some new ones will replace others.
The Muslim Brotherhood missed opportunity after opportunity to do some good during Mursi’s year in power – and it’s continuing to miss opportunities now.
The choice is his. President Mursi must call for early presidential elections – and he has to do it now. That will be for the sake of Egypt – but also for his own.
The trial verdict will perhaps help the Brotherhood to realise that a good part of what is happening to it now is a direct result of its own failures.
For Egyptians, President Morsi's failure or success will be his own, not Islam's. Egypt saw a number of revolutions in the 20th century, it may well see another one in the 21st
It feels like the calm before the storm. Well, calm is probably not the best word – we’re still hearing gun-fire in the distance. Having said that, we know that some of our neighbors are periodically shooting off rounds in order to alert us all to their presence, and feel that we’re in a secure…
The Egyptian government recently assembled a new cabinet in order to deliver on the promises of the “Renaissance Project” (mashru’ al-nahda).
Can what is happening in central Istanbul be described as the beginning of a ‘Turkish Spring’, and Taksim Square the Turkish equivalent of Egypt’s Tahrir Square?
An outright coup is not a successful outcome for the military. On the contrary, it is a risky scenario, and the military wants to minimize any risks going forward.
Satirical publications such as “the Onion,” “Pan-Arabia Enquirer” and “ElKoshary Today” have stiff competition for bizarre reportage – from normal news sources.
ISPU Fellow H.A. Hellyer's interview with Dr. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu in Cairo to discuss Egypt, religion, and the current situation.
Last night, the Egyptian president said that he would not run for another term, and that the constitution would be debated by Parliament for changes. That seemed to take the wind out of the sails of many protesting, and as such, Liberation Square was emptying out of protesters. At the same time, pro-Mubarak supporters (who…
One could have written "in Egypt," the truth is the greatest victim: but in truth, the level of misinformation with regards to coverage on Egypt, be it written in Egypt or abroad, is incredible.
The moderate middle of the Egyptian people needs to speak up to power to protect the core of the revolution that began in 2011.
As a Brit, I’ve seen the effects of al-Qa’eda’s style of violent Islamism firsthand. I was in England when London was hit on the 7th of July. I was in London when the second attempt, on the 22nd of July, took place – and I’ve spent years advising different governments and non-governmental organisations on counter-terrorism…
As a Brit, I’ve seen the effects of al-Qa’eda’s style of violent Islamism firsthand. I was in England when London was hit on the 7th of July. I was in London when the second attempt, on the 22nd of July, took place – and I’ve spent years advising different governments and non-governmental organisations on counter-terrorism…
There is paranoia now all over Egypt about the role of foreigners in the midst of this upheaval. From all sides, although in different ways. In anti-government Tahrir Square, I saw a sign instructing Americans to stay out of Egypt’s business - while I heard pro-government supporters (peacefully queuing along with everyone else to get…
The "yes" camp in the Egyptian referendum for constitutional reform got an overwhelming 77 per cent. But despite that groundswell, two conflicting realities have emerged. First, in the run-up to the referendum on constitutional amendments, and continuing thereafter, the spirit of the revolution remained alive and well in the Egyptian people. And secondly, the splits…
The "yes" camp in the Egyptian referendum for constitutional reform got an overwhelming 77 per cent. But despite that groundswell, two conflicting realities have emerged. First, in the run-up to the referendum on constitutional amendments, and continuing thereafter, the spirit of the revolution remained alive and well in the Egyptian people. And secondly, the splits…
While polling suggests that Egypt’s otherwise religiously conservative population are ambivalent towards religion-based political parties, support for restrictions on the ousted Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party has yet to be tested.
Revolutions often encounter problems when the force that united people against an enemy fails to provide a common vision for the future. In Egypt's case the internal divides, like any society's, are complex - with fault lines between class and in rural and urban areas. The most reported division, although not the deepest, is along…
Revolutions often encounter problems when the force that united people against an enemy fails to provide a common vision for the future. In Egypt's case the internal divides, like any society's, are complex - with fault lines between class and in rural and urban areas. The most reported division, although not the deepest, is along…
  "The Egyptian Revolution Does Not Request, It Demands." That was one of the public statements of the imam at the Omar Makram mosque in Cairo. That mosque did not use to be so well known -- there are many older, larger, even more beautifully designed mosques all over Cairo and Egypt. But now, Omar Makram…
  "The Egyptian Revolution Does Not Request, It Demands." That was one of the public statements of the imam at the Omar Makram mosque in Cairo. That mosque did not use to be so well known -- there are many older, larger, even more beautifully designed mosques all over Cairo and Egypt. But now, Omar Makram…
Egypt does not stand at a crossroads – it stands on quicksand.
The regional strategic context stands in contrast to 2008-2009. The government in Cairo is now much more sensitive to popular sentiment, which has been enflamed by the violence. Egypt's reaction to the conflict will be of keen interest to regional observers.
There is this trend in Egypt for those with justifiable disagreements with the Muslim Brotherhood, to find common cause with those outside of Egypt who share that enmity. They might want to reconsider that sort of alliance.
Has the revolution of the 25th of January come to an end in Egypt?
One would have hoped that the Egyptian media, a ‘party of power’ unto itself, would have sought to restructure the security apparatus or address the failings of the powerful. But the last three signs have seen signs of the contrary.
The question is about what the aim of the law ought to be. Is it to ensure that the right to freedom of assembly and protest is protected?
And now we begin to see plans. Those protesting in Tahrir Square are still vitally important to the anti-regime opposition in Egypt – because they ensure that pressure is kept on the regime through international media coverage, and economic disruption. But if you want to see what change is going to look like – that…
The reactions of Egyptions on the suspension of a portion of aid from Washington.
The Muslim Brotherhood believes it is fighting forces bent upon its destruction; the international media sees a confrontation between democratically elected Islamists and spoil-sport secularists. What's the reality?
One day, the Muslim Brotherhood will be out of government yet again – and the NGO sector will be called upon to defend its legitimate rights under another government.
One day, the Muslim Brotherhood will be out of government yet again – and the NGO sector will be called upon to defend its legitimate rights under another government.
On New Year’s Day, the Dar al-Ifta’ al-Misriyyah declared that 13 January would be the anniversary of the Prophet’s birthday in Egypt. Will 2014, and another year since the birth of the Prophet, be one where all might stop using religion, and the message of Islam in particular, for partisan gain?
Egypt has a way of putting otherwise rather reasonable people into rather unreasonable positions on a regular basis.
For months, from these pages and elsewhere, I have written a rather large number of articles criticising the conduct and performance of Egypt’s post-uprising political forces. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), which resumed power after Hosni Mubarak, gave a good deal of material for me to work with. I knew at the…
The revolution of 2011 is not yet over
If what happened on Sunday night is to be taken seriously, then condemnations are increasingly irrelevant. There are five points that must be addressed that go beyond Sunday night's tragedy.
The confusion continues. As the situation unfolds in Cairo, we see that significant numbers (if not compared to their opposition) of pro-Mubarak supporters have come out onto the street. All sorts of rumors abound about them, as well as about the anti-Mubarak supporters – and it's hard to sift through it all. There are rather…
Hellyer discusses the present situation in Egypt, including the "Sisi-mania" occurring in the country.
Despite growing numbers of American Muslims, little empirical work exists on their use of traditional healing practices. We explored the types of traditional healing practices used by American Muslims in southeast Michigan. Twelve semi-structured interviews with American Muslim community leaders identified through a community-academic steering committee were conducted. Using a framework coding structure, a multidisciplinary…
There are a few things here to ask in any poll: first, who has done it? Secondly, what methodology do they use? And third, what corroborating information do we have to contextualise its results?
Presented by the University of Michigan Medical School and ISPU, this unique 2-day conference brings together Islamic scholars and religious leaders, social scientists, health professionals and other stakeholders to discuss Islamic law, bioethics, medicine and health policy.
As we open and close the checkpoints on our streets and roads in the area (who would have thought that’s what I would be doing on a cool February morning in Cairo), there’s a new aspect to the procedure that we’ve developed over the coming days. And yes, there has been a procedure. We start…
As we open and close the checkpoints on our streets and roads in the area (who would have thought that’s what I would be doing on a cool February morning in Cairo), there’s a new aspect to the procedure that we’ve developed over the coming days. And yes, there has been a procedure. We start…
Egypt's president has been overturned by the military amid popular protests on two occasions since the start of the Arab Spring, but the differences between the two oustings tell the full story.
It was very close. The threat of armed violence on the streets of Cairo, particularly from supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood’s (MB) presidential candidate, Mohammed Mursi, was on everyone’s mind. Nevertheless, the military government stood their ground, and backed one of their own: on the 24th of June 2012, Ahmad Shafiq was declared as victor…
The past week has not seen a particular increase in the slaughter of Syrians that would suddenly provoke the Egyptian state into cutting off ties – why now?
What happened to the young Egyptian activists from the revolution that deposed Mubarak?
The subject of women’s rights in the Arab world has invigorated debates for many years. But such discussions have taken a controversial course recently with the publication of a Thomson Reuters Foundation study on the status of women in this region.
In 2006, Jack Straw, then leader of the House of Commons in the UK parliament, published a now famous piece on the face veil, or niqab, worn by some Muslim women. And so began the political mainstream’s campaign against the niqab across Europe, sparking controversy within the Muslim community, as well as outside it. Four…